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 Post subject: Re: I Wuz Black n Shiet
PostPosted: Mon Feb 12, 2018 7:40 pm 
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chijohnaok wrote:


:lol:

And I linked the following article earlier, and as per usual few cared to read. As a punishment I embed the article. :twisted:

Quote:

Ancient DNA sheds light on the mysterious origins of the first Scandinavians

Tracking the migration of humans isn’t easy, but genetics is helping us uncover new information at breathtaking speed. We know that our species originated in Africa and likely reached Europe from the southeast no later than 42,000 years ago. During the last ice age some 33,000-20,000 years ago, when a permanent ice sheet covered northern and parts of central Europe, modern humans in southwest Europe were isolated from groups further to the east.

When the ice sheet retreated, some of these hunter gatherers eventually colonised Scandinavia from the south about 11,700 years ago, making it one of the last areas of Europe to be inhabited. But exactly who these individuals were and how they got there has remained a puzzle for researchers. Now we have sequenced the genomes of seven hunter gatherers, dated to be 9,500-6,000 years old, to find out.

One of the reasons the origins of the first Scandinavians is so enigmatic is a major shift in stone tool technology that appeared soon after they got there. This new technology seemed to have had an origin in eastern Europe and it has been an open question how it reached Scandinavia.

Early migration

Our interdisciplinary research team combined genetic and archaeological data with reconstructions of the ice sheets to investigate the earliest people of the Scandinavian peninsula. We extracted DNA for sequencing from bones and teeth of the seven individuals from the Norwegian Atlantic coast and the Baltic islands of Gotland and Stora Karlsö.

We then compared the genomic data with the genetic variation of contemporary hunter gatherers from other parts of Europe. To our surprise, hunter gatherers from the Norwegian Atlantic coast were genetically more similar to contemporaneous populations from east of the Baltic Sea, while hunter gatherers from what is Sweden today were genetically more similar to those from central and western Europe. One could say that – in Scandinavia at that time – the geographic west was the genetic east and vice versa.

This contradiction between genetics and geography can only be explained by two main migrations into Scandinavia. It would have started with an initial pulse from the south – modern day Denmark and Germany – that took place just after 11,700 years ago. Then there would have been an additional migration from the northeast, following the Atlantic coast in northern Finland and Norway becoming free of ice.

These results, published in the PLOS Biology, agree with archaeological observations that the earliest occurrences of the new stone tool technology in Scandinavia were recorded in Finland, northwest Russia and Norway – dating to about 10,300 years ago. This kind of technology only appeared in southern Sweden and Denmark later on.

Blue eyes, blonde hair

Knowing the genomes of these hunter gatherer groups also allowed us to look deeper into the population dynamics in stone age Scandinavia. One consequence of the two groups mixing was a surprisingly large number of genetic variants in Scandinavian hunter gatherers. These groups were genetically more diverse than the groups that lived in central, western and southern Europe at the same time. That is in stark contrast to the pattern we see today where more genetic variation is found in southern Europe and less in the north.

Image
Axe, fish hook and other stone tools from the earliest Scandinavians, found in a cave on Gotland.

The two groups that came to Scandinavia were originally genetically quite different, and displayed distinct physical appearances. The people from the south had blue eyes and relatively dark skin. The people from the northeast, on the other hand, had a variation of eye colours and pale skin.

Originally, humans are a species from warmer climates closer to the equator and we mainly cope with challenging environments with specific behaviour and technology. This includes making fires, clothes and specialised hunting equipment. However, in the long term there is also potential for adaptation through genetic changes.

For example, we found that genetic variants associated with light skin and eye pigmentation were carried, on average, in greater frequency among Scandinavian hunter gatherers than their ancestors from other parts of Europe. Scientists believe that light skin pigmentation helps people better absorb sunlight and synthesise vitamin D from it.

That suggests that local adaptation to the high-latitude climate associated with low levels of sunlight and low temperatures took place in Scandinavia after these groups arrived. In fact, this is in agreement with the worldwide pattern of pigmentation decreasing with distance to the equator.

Modern people of northern Europe trace relatively little genetic ancestry back to the early Scandinavians studied by us. That’s because several later migrations have changed the Scandinavian gene pool over time. We know that migrations during the later stone age, the bronze age and historical times have brought new genetic material as well as novel technologies, cultures and languages.

The picture is similarly complex in other parts of the world. Hopefully it won’t be long before genetics helps us work out the detailed picture of exactly how humans have spread across the world since we first emerged.


Here is the point.

Quote:
The two groups that came to Scandinavia were originally genetically quite different, and displayed distinct physical appearances. The people from the south had blue eyes and relatively dark skin. The people from the northeast, on the other hand, had a variation of eye colours and pale skin.


The people who came from the south along the Atlantic coast came from the Franco-Cantabrian region; the Iberian Refugium. While article suggests that the other group came from northeast (to Norway), it originally came from the Ukrainian Refugim, migrating first to north, reaching the Arctic Ocean followed the coast to the west and eventually south.

There is archaeological evidence how two cultures met in the north some 11000 years ago. The findings match the DNA findings pretty much perfectly.

Image

Image

Why one group had adapted, white other had not? Is it the food they were eating, the mammoth hunters from Ukraine had less vitamin-D in their and hence more evolutionary pressure to adapt. While on the Atlantic route people ate much fish and seal, a vitamin-D rich diet.

Or what? :roll:

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 Post subject: Re: I Wuz Black n Shiet
PostPosted: Mon Feb 12, 2018 11:25 pm 
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Or what? How about three different species of homo Sapiens developed independently - Africans, Asians, and Caucasians. Despite evidence to the contrary, Africans are genetically superior, even if they never developed past the mud hut stage of civilization because da man kept them down.

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 Post subject: Re: I Wuz Black n Shiet
PostPosted: Tue Feb 13, 2018 6:02 pm 
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doggie wrote:
Or what? How about three different species of homo Sapiens developed independently - Africans, Asians, and Caucasians.

But are from a common ancestor, all Noah's children. :roll:

Which group the Cheddar Man does belong?

Image

Is the dark skinned, blue eyed man son of Shem, Ham or Japheth? :roll:

doggie wrote:
Despite evidence to the contrary, Africans are genetically superior, even if they never developed past the mud hut stage of civilization because da man kept them down.

Now you are clearly in need for re-education. For example we Finns know according by high school geography text book that "Australian neekeri on tylsämielinen ja ruma", in English "Australian nigger is imbecil and ugly". ;)

Obviously you are in need for re-education: The History of the White Race.

14 words.

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 Post subject: Re: I Wuz Black n Shiet
PostPosted: Tue Feb 13, 2018 6:58 pm 
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A bit off topic but check out this incredible 850 year old antler/copper arrow tip found on a mountain in Canada.

http://www.foxnews.com/science/2018/02/ ... intop.html

North of the Rio Grande, the native Americans did not smelt copper but smashed out metallic copper veins in rocks and then hammered it into the desired shape.

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 Post subject: Re: I Wuz Black n Shiet
PostPosted: Tue Feb 13, 2018 7:33 pm 
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jack t ripper wrote:
A bit off topic but check out this incredible 850 year old antler/copper arrow tip found on a mountain in Canada.

http://www.foxnews.com/science/2018/02/ ... intop.html

North of the Rio Grande, the native Americans did not smelt copper but smashed out metallic copper veins in rocks and then hammered it into the desired shape.

Off topic too, but I assume Mac doesn't mind. Perhaps on the contrary he will Pepe us biggly.

Anyway how about this:

Julia Rosen wrote:
Miners Left a Pollution Trail in the Great Lakes 6000 Years Ago

Moose, wolves, and a few intrepid humans roam the wilds of Michigan’s Isle Royale National Park today, but thousands of years ago, the island boasted a thriving mining industry.

The veins of copper that ripple through its bedrock drew the attention of early Native Americans, who used the metal to make tools. However, many details of their activities—such as when they mined—remain hidden behind the thick haze of time.

Now, new research suggests that Isle Royale’s mining boom peaked about 6000 years ago and left a legacy of aquatic pollution. The high levels of copper, lead, and potassium in sediments from a cove on the island point to a long and intense period of indigenous mining. Researchers presented these results, published recently in the journal The Holocene, in a poster session on 16 December at the 2014 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting.

Evidence of Ancient Mining

European explorers first noticed evidence for indigenous copper mines back in the 1800s. In some places, miners had dug down more than 20 meters into bedrock—an impressive feat considering their limited tools. However, without a way to date the pits directly, the timing of these mining activities could only be loosely constrained by the ages of copper artifacts found across the Great Lakes region. Archaeologists have dated many objects associated with the so-called Old Copper Complex, but the objects span thousands of years.

Image

The mines caught the interest of David Pompeani, a Ph.D. student at the University of Pittsburgh, who went looking for clues beneath the chilly waters of Lake Superior. He hypothesized that chemicals released during the process of mining and annealing copper would leak into the lake and settle in its sediments. These sediments could then be dated using carbon-14 and other radioactive isotopes.

One such indicator of mining activity is lead, which would have leached from mine tailings and vaporized when miners heated copper to shape the metal, only to collect again in nearby waters. Pompeani and his colleagues previously found lead pollution in 8000- to 5000-year-old sediments along the south shore of Lake Superior. They interpreted this pollution as evidence of an extended era of widespread copper mining on Michigan’s Keweenaw Peninsula.

A Focus on Isle Royale

Several questions followed. How far did these ancient miners range? Did they migrate from one mine to another? To learn more, Pompeani’s team jumped across the lake to Isle Royale, a streak of rock that lies just off the Canadian shore. There, indigenous miners excavated the largest known pre-Columbian copper mine on top of Minong Ridge.

In nearby McCargoe Cove, a deep inlet that cuts diagonally across the island’s glacial striations, the researchers found elevated levels of lead and copper, along with potassium—a by-product of the fires used for mining and annealing. At their peak, lead and copper concentrations reached values an order of magnitude greater than background levels and about half as high as those associated with modern contamination.

The Fate of Ancient Miners

The spike in pollution began 6500 years ago and lasted for about a millennium. Then, abruptly, it ended, suggesting mining ended too. Pollution did not rise again until the mid-1800s, when mining resumed on Isle Royale, smelting began on the Keweenaw Peninsula, and leaded gasoline emissions grew.

The scientists do not know why mining screeched to a halt. They speculate that miners may have exhausted all the easily accessible veins and moved on. Climate changes may have also played a role—evidence from lake sediments around the Midwest suggests climate began to get dryer. In time, geologic clues may continue to provide more information.


How about this? :roll:

And sorry Mac. ;)

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 Post subject: Re: I Wuz Black n Shiet
PostPosted: Tue Feb 13, 2018 8:38 pm 
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Isle Royale is a cool park. No cars. Good canoeing. Lots of wildlife.

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Last edited by jack t ripper on Tue Feb 13, 2018 8:44 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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 Post subject: Re: I Wuz Black n Shiet
PostPosted: Tue Feb 13, 2018 8:40 pm 
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nero wrote:
Off topic too, but I assume Mac doesn't mind. Perhaps on the contrary he will Pepe us biggly.

Would have upvoted you for the Pepe us biggly quip if I could. :lol:

I'm used to my threads going off topic, its all good, I always see them as like a bunch of lads having a bit of a banter down the pub. They wind in and out of the subject before they get back to the actual point. WHICH IS AM I A FUCKING KANG OR NOT???

I have a lot of Irish in my blood so I am pretty sure I am related to one somewhere down the line. ;)

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 Post subject: Re: I Wuz Black n Shiet
PostPosted: Tue Feb 13, 2018 8:46 pm 
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If you can find a link to Tom Jones then we can clearly link you to Cheddar Man.

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 Post subject: Re: I Wuz Black n Shiet
PostPosted: Wed Feb 14, 2018 2:43 am 
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Long long ago some anthropologists started digging in a cave in the American SW and found Indian signs, dug further and found earlier Indian signs, dug further and found coke cans :roll:

Impossible, no ... it's theorized that the cave was once two caves, one located on top the other. The Indian cave collapsed into the other and covered modern day trash left by campers.

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 Post subject: Re: I Wuz Black n Shiet
PostPosted: Wed Feb 14, 2018 6:14 am 
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abradley wrote:
Long long ago some anthropologists started digging in a cave in the American SW and found Indian signs, dug further and found earlier Indian signs, dug further and found coke cans :roll:

Impossible, no ... it's theorized that the cave was once two caves, one located on top the other. The Indian cave collapsed into the other and covered modern day trash left by campers.



I say the Coke cans were from sloppy time travelers...

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